Forms and formats

For the collector of Oriental rugs, size and intended use are just as important as every other feature. Size and function play an essential role in the differentiation of merchandise or collectibles. Merchandise means that a carpet was made purely for selling, collectible means it was produced primarily for use by the manufacturer itself and later for a foreign buyer in trade flows.

Carpets are usually more than 2.70 * 1.80 tall and are bought because of their decorative value.

Bridges are usually smaller, merchandise and some collectible are located under them.
Small carpets of each provenance are collected by many lovers.

Runners are typically 0.90 – 1.20 m wide and 2.40-6,00 m long. In terms of its specific use they are considered merchandise.
Prayer rugs measure approximately 0.60-1.20 m * 1.20-2.40 m and are also among the favourite collectibles.

Double bags are approx. 0.60 * 1.20-1.50 m tall. They served the nomads for transport and are among the most sought-after collectibles.

Old saddle bags have mostly been cut up and decorative cushions made from the front of the bag.

Tschowals are individual bags and are called "Torba" or "Mafrash" are also very popular with collectors.

Collectibles include tent bands, animal hangings, horse and camel blankets (made by nomads for everyday or special occasions).
Flat fabrics are made in all formats and collected enthusiastically.

With the exception of weaving all of the above-stated regarding the pile carpets applies also to flat weaving. They differ in their structure in that they usually do not have a knotted pile.

Flat fabrics consist of warp and weft, however, the production techniques are more versatile than pile carpets. Identification is based on the technique, kilim and Sumakh are two most common types of weave .

Sumakhs are complex and cannot be used on both sides. Additional coloured weft threads are moved to create the pattern and the warps wrapped. At the end of the respective colour space, they are cut off and hang on the back of the fabric. "Sumakhs" belong to the Brocade style of weaving.

Geographical mapping of carpets

Iran, the Caucasus, Turkey, Central Asia and China are the strongholds of carpet art and show typical technical characteristics . The design differs depending on the country and it is dependent on the ratios of knots, whether they were farmers, townspeople or nomads. The basic character can be described as abstract, geometric or representational or in a Persian style when the patterns of Herati , Minah-Khani, Boteh or arabesque prevail .

The Caucasian rugs are generally village rugs, however, a group of large carpets in urban workshops was made.

Central Asian carpets, such as Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are mostly nomads - or village rugs.

Chinese carpets come mainly from North China, Tibet and East Turkestan and are produced mostly in urban centers.

The carpets of Turkey are mostly from Bergama, Konya, Yuruk melas. Particularly popular among collectors, are the Anatolian kilims from Malataya. Silk carpets are made in the region of Istanbul and the finest come from Hereke.

Materials, natural, chemically treated, synthetic colors

Most frequently used are, cork wool, angora wool, cotton, Highland wool - from certain special sheep, silk, camel hair and goat or horse hair. Before 1856, when the first synthetic fibers were developed, natural dyes were used in the Orient for the carpet colors... The rapid development of the synthetic dyes and their rapid spread all over the world ensured that from about 1860 they also served the Oriental weavers, although natural dyes were used for several decades. The collective term for the dye developed 1856 by William H. Perkin, an English chemistry student who accidentally discovered synthetic colours, is "Aniline dye". The colors were exported from the 1860s to the Orient. Red, orange, yellow, and green tones were available. Artificial Indigo could be synthesized from 1897.

From the beginning of the 20th century the synthetic colors had displaced almost entirely the natural ones. Synthetic colors can however still fade or run and collectors avoid these carpets. Chemical colors, such as a bright orange are quickly recognized by collectors. Natural colours are created from plants, roots, insects, spices and pomegranates by the nomads